По ссылке выше впечатления человека о uefi и secure boot. Небольшая выдержка для Ъ:
He tried installing Linux on a similar system and had that same problem, though it didn’t lock him out of booting the thing like the machine I had. When it didn’t work, he made a second attempt, only to notice that the HDD activity light NEVER LIT UP during the install process. The system didn’t boot because there was nothing to boot from. He went ahead and made a guess as to why it happened, though.
I’m betting the thing tried to install everything to the drive, but the firmware redirected it somewhere else. Maybe to memory, maybe even to something like /dev/null. I dunno for sure.